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In an attempt to better understand some commercial terms, experts at the International Chamber of Trade have divided the different transactions into four groups:

Factory Group
Given the letter E as a reference. It exclusively covers the term EXW. This means that the seller delivers the goods to the buyer at the warehouse/ seller?s factory.

Unpaid Shipping Charges Group
Given the letter F as a reference. It usually comes in the following terms FCA, FAS, and FOB. This means that the seller will hand the goods over to the shipping agent appointed by the buyer at a certain location without entering into a shipping contract.

Paid Shipping Charges Group
Given the letter C as reference. It usually comes in the following terms: CIP, CFR, CIF and CPT. In this case the seller makes a shipping contract and pays for the shipping charges, but without taking the liability for risks of the loss or damage which the goods may sustain, or any additional expenses that may result after shipping the goods up until they reach their destination on the buyer?s end.

Arrival Group
Given the letter D as a reference. It usually comes in the following terms:

  • D.A.F: The seller takes care of the shipping arrangements, the risks, payment of the shipping charges and all expenses until the goods are delivered at the border station in the importing country.


  • D.E.S: The seller takes care of the shipping arrangements, the risks, payment of the shipping charges and all expenses until the goods are delivered on/in the means of transportation in country of destination.


  • D.E.Q: The seller takes care of the shipping arrangements, the risks, payment of the shipping charges and all expenses until the goods are delivered on deck in country of destination.


  • D.D.U: The seller takes care of the shipping arrangements, the risks, payment of the shipping charges and all expenses until the goods are stored in the warehouses in country of destination.


  • D.D.P: The seller takes care of the shipping arrangements, the risks, payment of the shipping charges and all expenses until the goods are stored in the warehouses in country of destination and customs duties are paid in the importing country.


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